Elizabeth I, Queen of England

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She succeded her sister [[Mary, Queen of England|Mary]] as Queen of England in 1558.
 
She succeded her sister [[Mary, Queen of England|Mary]] as Queen of England in 1558.
  
She died in 1603, and was succeeded by her first cousin, twice removed, who was up until then James VI, King of Scotland, but ruled England as [[James I, King of England]].
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She died in 1603 and was succeeded by her first-cousin twice-removed, who was up until then, James VI King of Scotland, but who ruled England as [[James I, King of England]].
  
 
==External links==
 
==External links==
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Elizabeth I of England
 
Elizabeth I of England
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
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"Elizabeth I" redirects here. For other meanings, see Elizabeth I (disambiguation).
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*Reign 17 November 1558 – 24 March 1603  
Elizabeth I
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*Coronation 15 January 1559  
Queen of England and Ireland (more...)
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*Predecessor Mary I  
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*Successor [[James I, King of England|James I]]
The Darnley Portrait, 1575
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*Royal house House of Tudor  
Reign 17 November 1558 – 24 March 1603  
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*Father [[Henry VIII, King of England|Henry VIII]]
Coronation 15 January 1559  
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*Mother Anne Boleyn  
Predecessor Mary I  
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*Born 7 September 1533 Greenwich, England  
Successor James I  
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*Died 24 March 1603 (aged 69) Richmond, England  
Royal house House of Tudor  
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*Burial Westminster Abbey  
Father Henry VIII  
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Mother Anne Boleyn  
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Born 7 September 1533
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Greenwich, England  
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Died 24 March 1603 (aged 69)
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Richmond, England  
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Burial Westminster Abbey  
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Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. Sometimes called The Virgin Queen, Gloriana or Good Queen Bess, Elizabeth was the fifth (or sixth if Lady Jane Grey is included) and last monarch of the Tudor dynasty. The daughter of Henry VIII, she was born a princess, but her mother, Anne Boleyn, was executed three years after her birth, and Elizabeth was declared illegitimate. Perhaps for that reason, her brother, Edward VI, cut her out of the succession. His will, however, was set aside, as it contravened the Third Succession Act of 1543, in which Elizabeth was named as successor provided that Mary I of England, Elizabeth's half-sister, should die without issue. In 1558, Elizabeth succeeded Mary, during whose reign she had been imprisoned for nearly a year on suspicion of supporting Protestant rebels.
 
Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. Sometimes called The Virgin Queen, Gloriana or Good Queen Bess, Elizabeth was the fifth (or sixth if Lady Jane Grey is included) and last monarch of the Tudor dynasty. The daughter of Henry VIII, she was born a princess, but her mother, Anne Boleyn, was executed three years after her birth, and Elizabeth was declared illegitimate. Perhaps for that reason, her brother, Edward VI, cut her out of the succession. His will, however, was set aside, as it contravened the Third Succession Act of 1543, in which Elizabeth was named as successor provided that Mary I of England, Elizabeth's half-sister, should die without issue. In 1558, Elizabeth succeeded Mary, during whose reign she had been imprisoned for nearly a year on suspicion of supporting Protestant rebels.
  
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Historians, however, tend to be more cautious in their assessment. They often depict Elizabeth as a short-tempered,[4] sometimes indecisive ruler,[5] who enjoyed more than her share of luck. Towards the end of her reign, a series of economic and military problems weakened her popularity to the point where many of her subjects were relieved at her death. Elizabeth is, however, acknowledged by historians as a charismatic performer and a dogged survivor, in an age when government was ramshackle and limited and when monarchs in neighbouring countries faced internal problems that jeopardised their thrones. Such was the case with Elizabeth's rival, Mary, Queen of Scots, whom she imprisoned in 1568 and eventually had executed in 1587. After the short reigns of Elizabeth's brother and sister, her forty-five years on the throne provided stability for the kingdom and helped forge a sense of national identity.[2]
 
Historians, however, tend to be more cautious in their assessment. They often depict Elizabeth as a short-tempered,[4] sometimes indecisive ruler,[5] who enjoyed more than her share of luck. Towards the end of her reign, a series of economic and military problems weakened her popularity to the point where many of her subjects were relieved at her death. Elizabeth is, however, acknowledged by historians as a charismatic performer and a dogged survivor, in an age when government was ramshackle and limited and when monarchs in neighbouring countries faced internal problems that jeopardised their thrones. Such was the case with Elizabeth's rival, Mary, Queen of Scots, whom she imprisoned in 1568 and eventually had executed in 1587. After the short reigns of Elizabeth's brother and sister, her forty-five years on the throne provided stability for the kingdom and helped forge a sense of national identity.[2]
  
Contents
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==Early life==
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1 Early life  
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2 Thomas Seymour
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3 Queen Mary
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4 Queen Elizabeth
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5 Religion
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6 Marriage question
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7 Foreign policy
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7.1 Scotland
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7.2 Spain
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7.3 France
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7.4 Ireland
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8 Later years and death
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9 Legacy
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10 Ancestors
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11 See also
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12 Notes and References
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13 Bibliography
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14 External links
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[edit] Early life
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Elizabeth Tudor, c. 1546, by an unknown artist. The simplicity of this portrait contrasts with the ornate icons that came later.[6]Elizabeth was born in Greenwich Palace and named after both her paternal and maternal grandmothers, Elizabeth of York and Elizabeth Howard .[7] She was the second legitimate child of Henry VIII of England to survive infancy; her mother was Henry's second wife, Anne Boleyn. At birth, Elizabeth was the heiress presumptive to the throne of England. Her older half-sister, Mary, had lost her position as legitimate heir when Henry annulled his marriage to Mary's mother, Catherine of Aragon, in order to marry Anne.[8][9] King Henry had desperately wanted a legitimate son, to ensure the Tudor succession. After Elizabeth's birth, Queen Anne failed to provide a male heir. She suffered at least two miscarriages, one in 1534 and another at the beginning of 1536. On 2 May 1536, she was arrested and imprisoned. Hastily convicted on trumped-up charges, she was beheaded on 19 May 1536.[10][11]
 
Elizabeth Tudor, c. 1546, by an unknown artist. The simplicity of this portrait contrasts with the ornate icons that came later.[6]Elizabeth was born in Greenwich Palace and named after both her paternal and maternal grandmothers, Elizabeth of York and Elizabeth Howard .[7] She was the second legitimate child of Henry VIII of England to survive infancy; her mother was Henry's second wife, Anne Boleyn. At birth, Elizabeth was the heiress presumptive to the throne of England. Her older half-sister, Mary, had lost her position as legitimate heir when Henry annulled his marriage to Mary's mother, Catherine of Aragon, in order to marry Anne.[8][9] King Henry had desperately wanted a legitimate son, to ensure the Tudor succession. After Elizabeth's birth, Queen Anne failed to provide a male heir. She suffered at least two miscarriages, one in 1534 and another at the beginning of 1536. On 2 May 1536, she was arrested and imprisoned. Hastily convicted on trumped-up charges, she was beheaded on 19 May 1536.[10][11]
  
 
Elizabeth, who was 2 years, 8 months, old at the time, was declared illegitimate and deprived of the title of princess.[12] Eleven days after Anne Boleyn's death, Henry married Jane Seymour,[13] who died 12 days after the birth of their son, Prince Edward. Elizabeth was placed in Edward's household and carried the chrisom, or baptismal cloth, at his christening.[14]
 
Elizabeth, who was 2 years, 8 months, old at the time, was declared illegitimate and deprived of the title of princess.[12] Eleven days after Anne Boleyn's death, Henry married Jane Seymour,[13] who died 12 days after the birth of their son, Prince Edward. Elizabeth was placed in Edward's household and carried the chrisom, or baptismal cloth, at his christening.[14]
  
 
 
The Miroir or Glasse of the Synneful Soul, a manuscript translation from the French, by Elizabeth, aged 11, presented to Catherine Parr in 1544. The embroidered binding with the monogram KP for "Katherin Parr" is believed to have been worked by Elizabeth.[15]Elizabeth's first governess, Lady Margaret Bryan, wrote that she was “as toward a child and as gentle of conditions as ever I knew any in my life”.[16] At the age of four, Elizabeth passed into the care of Catherine Champernowne, better known by her later, married name of Catherine “Kat” Ashley, who remained Elizabeth’s friend for life. Champernowne clearly made a good job of Elizabeth’s early education: by the time William Grindal became her tutor in 1544, Elizabeth could write English, Latin, and Italian. Under Grindal, a talented and skillful tutor, she also progressed in French and Greek.[17] After Grindal died in 1548, Elizabeth received her education under Roger Ascham, a sympathetic teacher who believed that learning should be fun.[18] By the time her formal education ended in 1550, she was the best educated woman of her generation.[19]
 
The Miroir or Glasse of the Synneful Soul, a manuscript translation from the French, by Elizabeth, aged 11, presented to Catherine Parr in 1544. The embroidered binding with the monogram KP for "Katherin Parr" is believed to have been worked by Elizabeth.[15]Elizabeth's first governess, Lady Margaret Bryan, wrote that she was “as toward a child and as gentle of conditions as ever I knew any in my life”.[16] At the age of four, Elizabeth passed into the care of Catherine Champernowne, better known by her later, married name of Catherine “Kat” Ashley, who remained Elizabeth’s friend for life. Champernowne clearly made a good job of Elizabeth’s early education: by the time William Grindal became her tutor in 1544, Elizabeth could write English, Latin, and Italian. Under Grindal, a talented and skillful tutor, she also progressed in French and Greek.[17] After Grindal died in 1548, Elizabeth received her education under Roger Ascham, a sympathetic teacher who believed that learning should be fun.[18] By the time her formal education ended in 1550, she was the best educated woman of her generation.[19]
  
 
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==Thomas Seymour==
[edit] Thomas Seymour
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Henry VIII died in 1547, when Elizabeth was 13 years old, and was succeeded by her half brother, Edward VI. Catherine Parr, Henry's last wife, soon married Thomas Seymour of Sudeley, Edward VI's uncle and the brother of the Lord Protector, Edward Seymour, Duke of Somerset. The couple took Elizabeth into their household at Chelsea. There Elizabeth experienced an emotional crisis that historians believe affected her for the rest of her life.[20] Seymour, approaching forty but with a natural charm and "a powerful sex appeal",[20] engaged in romps and horseplay with the fifteen-year-old Elizabeth. These included entering her bedroom in his nightgown, tickling her and slapping her on the buttocks. This state of affairs was put to a stop by Catherine Parr, after she discovered the pair in an embrace.[21][22] In May 1548, Elizabeth was sent away.[23]
 
Henry VIII died in 1547, when Elizabeth was 13 years old, and was succeeded by her half brother, Edward VI. Catherine Parr, Henry's last wife, soon married Thomas Seymour of Sudeley, Edward VI's uncle and the brother of the Lord Protector, Edward Seymour, Duke of Somerset. The couple took Elizabeth into their household at Chelsea. There Elizabeth experienced an emotional crisis that historians believe affected her for the rest of her life.[20] Seymour, approaching forty but with a natural charm and "a powerful sex appeal",[20] engaged in romps and horseplay with the fifteen-year-old Elizabeth. These included entering her bedroom in his nightgown, tickling her and slapping her on the buttocks. This state of affairs was put to a stop by Catherine Parr, after she discovered the pair in an embrace.[21][22] In May 1548, Elizabeth was sent away.[23]
  
 
That was not the last of the matter, however. Seymour was ambitious and scheming to control the royal family.[24][25] When Catherine Parr died of puerperal fever after childbirth on 5 September 1548, he renewed his attentions towards Elizabeth, intent on wedding her. [26] The details of his former behaviour towards Elizabeth emerged during an interrogation of Catherine Ashley and Thomas Parry, Elizabeth’s cofferer.[27] For his brother and the council, this was the last straw,[28] and in January, 1549, Seymour was arrested on suspicion of plotting to marry Elizabeth and overthrow his brother. Elizabeth, living at Hatfield House, would admit nothing. Her stubbornness exasperated her interrogator, Sir Robert Tyrwhitt, who reported, "I do see it in her face that she is guilty".[28] Seymour was beheaded on 20 March 1549. Elizabeth was aged 15 and a half.
 
That was not the last of the matter, however. Seymour was ambitious and scheming to control the royal family.[24][25] When Catherine Parr died of puerperal fever after childbirth on 5 September 1548, he renewed his attentions towards Elizabeth, intent on wedding her. [26] The details of his former behaviour towards Elizabeth emerged during an interrogation of Catherine Ashley and Thomas Parry, Elizabeth’s cofferer.[27] For his brother and the council, this was the last straw,[28] and in January, 1549, Seymour was arrested on suspicion of plotting to marry Elizabeth and overthrow his brother. Elizabeth, living at Hatfield House, would admit nothing. Her stubbornness exasperated her interrogator, Sir Robert Tyrwhitt, who reported, "I do see it in her face that she is guilty".[28] Seymour was beheaded on 20 March 1549. Elizabeth was aged 15 and a half.
  
 
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==Queen Mary==
[edit] Queen Mary
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Queen Mary I, by Antonis Mor, 1554. Mary imprisoned Elizabeth in the Tower of London for suspected collaboration with the rebel Thomas Wyatt.  
 
Queen Mary I, by Antonis Mor, 1554. Mary imprisoned Elizabeth in the Tower of London for suspected collaboration with the rebel Thomas Wyatt.  
 
The remaining wing of the Old Palace, Hatfield House. It was here that Elizabeth was told of her sister's death in November 1558.Edward VI died of tuberculosis on 6 July 1553, aged fifteen. His will swept aside the 1543 Act of Succession, excluded both Mary and Elizabeth from the succession, and instead declared as his heir Lady Jane Grey, granddaughter of Henry VIII's sister Mary, Duchess of Suffolk.[29] Lady Jane was proclaimed queen, but her support quickly crumbled, and she was deposed less than two weeks later. Mary rode triumphantly into London, with Elizabeth at her side.[30]
 
The remaining wing of the Old Palace, Hatfield House. It was here that Elizabeth was told of her sister's death in November 1558.Edward VI died of tuberculosis on 6 July 1553, aged fifteen. His will swept aside the 1543 Act of Succession, excluded both Mary and Elizabeth from the succession, and instead declared as his heir Lady Jane Grey, granddaughter of Henry VIII's sister Mary, Duchess of Suffolk.[29] Lady Jane was proclaimed queen, but her support quickly crumbled, and she was deposed less than two weeks later. Mary rode triumphantly into London, with Elizabeth at her side.[30]
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On 17 April 1555, Elizabeth was recalled to court to be closely attended during the final stages of Mary's apparent pregnancy. If Mary and her child died, Elizabeth would become queen. If, on the other hand, Mary gave birth to a healthy child, Elizabeth's chances of becoming queen would recede sharply.[37] When it became clear that Mary was not pregnant, no one believed any longer that she could have a child.[39] Elizabeth's succession seemed assured.[40] Even Philip, who became King of Spain in 1556, acknowledged the new political reality. From this time forward, he cultivated Elizabeth, preferring her to the likely alternative, Mary, Queen of Scots, who was betrothed to the Dauphin of France.[41] When his wife fell ill in 1558, Philip sent the Count of Feria to consult with Elizabeth.[42] By October, Elizabeth was making plans for her government. On 6 November, Mary recognised Elizabeth as her heir.[43][44] Eleven days later, Elizabeth succeeded to the throne when Mary died at St. James's Palace on 17 November.
 
On 17 April 1555, Elizabeth was recalled to court to be closely attended during the final stages of Mary's apparent pregnancy. If Mary and her child died, Elizabeth would become queen. If, on the other hand, Mary gave birth to a healthy child, Elizabeth's chances of becoming queen would recede sharply.[37] When it became clear that Mary was not pregnant, no one believed any longer that she could have a child.[39] Elizabeth's succession seemed assured.[40] Even Philip, who became King of Spain in 1556, acknowledged the new political reality. From this time forward, he cultivated Elizabeth, preferring her to the likely alternative, Mary, Queen of Scots, who was betrothed to the Dauphin of France.[41] When his wife fell ill in 1558, Philip sent the Count of Feria to consult with Elizabeth.[42] By October, Elizabeth was making plans for her government. On 6 November, Mary recognised Elizabeth as her heir.[43][44] Eleven days later, Elizabeth succeeded to the throne when Mary died at St. James's Palace on 17 November.
  
 
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==Queen Elizabeth==
[edit] Queen Elizabeth
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Elizabeth became queen at the age of 25. As her triumphal progress wound through the city on the eve of the coronation ceremony, she was welcomed wholeheartedly by the citizens and greeted by orations and pageants, most with a strong Protestant flavour. Elizabeth's open and gracious responses endeared her to the spectators, who were "wonderfully ravished".[45] The following day, 15 January 1559, Elizabeth was crowned at Westminster Abbey and anointed by the Catholic bishop of Carlisle. She was then presented for the people's acceptance, amidst a deafening noise of organs, fifes, trumpets, drums, and bells.[46]
 
Elizabeth became queen at the age of 25. As her triumphal progress wound through the city on the eve of the coronation ceremony, she was welcomed wholeheartedly by the citizens and greeted by orations and pageants, most with a strong Protestant flavour. Elizabeth's open and gracious responses endeared her to the spectators, who were "wonderfully ravished".[45] The following day, 15 January 1559, Elizabeth was crowned at Westminster Abbey and anointed by the Catholic bishop of Carlisle. She was then presented for the people's acceptance, amidst a deafening noise of organs, fifes, trumpets, drums, and bells.[46]
  
 
 
Elizabeth I in her coronation robes, patterned with Tudor roses and trimmed with ermine. She wears her hair loose, as traditional for the coronation of a queen, perhaps also as a symbol of virginity.[47] The painting dates to the first decade of the seventeenth century and is based on a lost original.[48]On 20 November 1558, Elizabeth declared her intentions to her Council and other peers who had come to Hatfield to swear allegiance. The speech contains the first record of her often-used metaphor of the "two bodies": the body natural and the body politic:
 
Elizabeth I in her coronation robes, patterned with Tudor roses and trimmed with ermine. She wears her hair loose, as traditional for the coronation of a queen, perhaps also as a symbol of virginity.[47] The painting dates to the first decade of the seventeenth century and is based on a lost original.[48]On 20 November 1558, Elizabeth declared her intentions to her Council and other peers who had come to Hatfield to swear allegiance. The speech contains the first record of her often-used metaphor of the "two bodies": the body natural and the body politic:
  
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[edit] Religion
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==Religion==
Main article: Elizabethan Religious Settlement
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Elizabeth's conscience was in no doubt that a break with Rome was justified. This coincided with her most powerful lords' wish for her to repudiate the Pope and Spanish influence. The policies of Sir William Cecil, her Secretary of State, and her chief advisors were aligned. She also knew that the papacy might never recognise her as the legitimate child of Henry VIII and the rightful ruler of England.[50] She therefore determined to establish an English church suited to the needs of the English people. As a result, the parliament of 1559 started to legislate for a church based on the Protestant settlement of Edward VI, with the monarch as its head.[51] The House of Commons backed the proposals strongly, but the bill of supremacy met opposition in the House of Lords, particularly from the bishops. Elizabeth was fortunate, however, that many bishoprics were vacant at the time, including the Archbishopric of Canterbury.[52][53] This enabled supporters amongst peers to outvote the bishops and conservative peers.
 
Elizabeth's conscience was in no doubt that a break with Rome was justified. This coincided with her most powerful lords' wish for her to repudiate the Pope and Spanish influence. The policies of Sir William Cecil, her Secretary of State, and her chief advisors were aligned. She also knew that the papacy might never recognise her as the legitimate child of Henry VIII and the rightful ruler of England.[50] She therefore determined to establish an English church suited to the needs of the English people. As a result, the parliament of 1559 started to legislate for a church based on the Protestant settlement of Edward VI, with the monarch as its head.[51] The House of Commons backed the proposals strongly, but the bill of supremacy met opposition in the House of Lords, particularly from the bishops. Elizabeth was fortunate, however, that many bishoprics were vacant at the time, including the Archbishopric of Canterbury.[52][53] This enabled supporters amongst peers to outvote the bishops and conservative peers.
  
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[edit] Marriage question
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==Marriage question==
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Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, attributed to Steven van der Meulen, 1560s. Elizabeth's friendship with Dudley, her foremost favourite, lasted for over thirty years.From the start of Elizabeth's reign, the question arose whom she would marry. However, she never married, and the reasons for this are not clear. Historians have speculated that Thomas Seymour had put her off sexual relationships, or that she knew herself to be infertile.[55][56] Until bearing a child became impossible, she considered several suitors, the last courtship ending in 1581 when Elizabeth was aged 48, was with François, Duke of Anjou (22 years her junior). However, Elizabeth had no need of a man's help to govern, and marrying risked a loss of control or of foreign interference in her affairs, as had happened to her sister Mary. On the other hand, marriage offered the chance of an heir.[57]
 
Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, attributed to Steven van der Meulen, 1560s. Elizabeth's friendship with Dudley, her foremost favourite, lasted for over thirty years.From the start of Elizabeth's reign, the question arose whom she would marry. However, she never married, and the reasons for this are not clear. Historians have speculated that Thomas Seymour had put her off sexual relationships, or that she knew herself to be infertile.[55][56] Until bearing a child became impossible, she considered several suitors, the last courtship ending in 1581 when Elizabeth was aged 48, was with François, Duke of Anjou (22 years her junior). However, Elizabeth had no need of a man's help to govern, and marrying risked a loss of control or of foreign interference in her affairs, as had happened to her sister Mary. On the other hand, marriage offered the chance of an heir.[57]
  
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[edit] Foreign policy
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==Foreign policy==
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François, Duke of Anjou, by Nicholas Hilliard. Elizabeth called the duke her "frog", finding him "not so deformed" as she had been led to expect.[68]Apart from the Dudley affair, Elizabeth treated the marriage issue as an aspect of foreign policy.[69] Though she turned down Philip II's own offer in 1559, she negotiated for several years to marry his cousin Archduke Charles of Austria. However, relations with the Habsburgs deteriorated by 1568. Elizabeth then considered marriage to two French Valois princes in turn, first Henri, Duke of Anjou, and later, from 1572 to 1581, his brother François, Duke of Anjou.[70] This last proposal was tied to a planned alliance against Spanish control of the Southern Netherlands.[71] Elizabeth seems to have taken the courtship seriously for a time, and wore a frog-shaped earring that Anjou had sent her.[72]
 
François, Duke of Anjou, by Nicholas Hilliard. Elizabeth called the duke her "frog", finding him "not so deformed" as she had been led to expect.[68]Apart from the Dudley affair, Elizabeth treated the marriage issue as an aspect of foreign policy.[69] Though she turned down Philip II's own offer in 1559, she negotiated for several years to marry his cousin Archduke Charles of Austria. However, relations with the Habsburgs deteriorated by 1568. Elizabeth then considered marriage to two French Valois princes in turn, first Henri, Duke of Anjou, and later, from 1572 to 1581, his brother François, Duke of Anjou.[70] This last proposal was tied to a planned alliance against Spanish control of the Southern Netherlands.[71] Elizabeth seems to have taken the courtship seriously for a time, and wore a frog-shaped earring that Anjou had sent her.[72]
  
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[edit] Scotland
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==Scotland==
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Mary, Queen of Scots. School of François ClouetElizabeth's first policy toward Scotland was to oppose the French presence there.[79] She feared that the French planned to invade England and put Mary, Queen of Scots, who was in effect the heir to the English crown,[80] on the throne.[81] Elizabeth was persuaded to send a force into Scotland to aid the Protestant rebels, and though the campaign was inept, the resulting Treaty of Edinburgh of July 1560 removed the French threat in the north.[82] When Mary returned to Scotland in 1561 to take up the reins of power, the country had an established Protestant church and was run by a council of Protestant nobles supported by Elizabeth.[83] Mary refused to ratify the treaty.[84]
 
Mary, Queen of Scots. School of François ClouetElizabeth's first policy toward Scotland was to oppose the French presence there.[79] She feared that the French planned to invade England and put Mary, Queen of Scots, who was in effect the heir to the English crown,[80] on the throne.[81] Elizabeth was persuaded to send a force into Scotland to aid the Protestant rebels, and though the campaign was inept, the resulting Treaty of Edinburgh of July 1560 removed the French threat in the north.[82] When Mary returned to Scotland in 1561 to take up the reins of power, the country had an established Protestant church and was run by a council of Protestant nobles supported by Elizabeth.[83] Mary refused to ratify the treaty.[84]
  
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These events led rapidly to Mary's defeat and imprisonment in Loch Leven Castle. The Scottish lords forced her to abdicate in favour of her son James, who had been born in June 1566. James was taken to Stirling Castle to be raised as a Protestant. Mary escaped from Loch Leven in 1568 but after another defeat fled across the border into England, where she had once been assured of support from Elizabeth. Elizabeth's first instinct was to restore her fellow monarch; but she and her council instead chose to play safe. Rather than risk returning Mary to Scotland with an English army or sending her to France and the Catholic enemies of England, they detained her in England. She was imprisoned there for the next nineteen years.[86]
 
These events led rapidly to Mary's defeat and imprisonment in Loch Leven Castle. The Scottish lords forced her to abdicate in favour of her son James, who had been born in June 1566. James was taken to Stirling Castle to be raised as a Protestant. Mary escaped from Loch Leven in 1568 but after another defeat fled across the border into England, where she had once been assured of support from Elizabeth. Elizabeth's first instinct was to restore her fellow monarch; but she and her council instead chose to play safe. Rather than risk returning Mary to Scotland with an English army or sending her to France and the Catholic enemies of England, they detained her in England. She was imprisoned there for the next nineteen years.[86]
  
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Mary was soon the focus for rebellion. In 1569, plotters in the Rising of the North talked of freeing her, and a scheme arose to marry her to Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk. Elizabeth reacted by sending Howard to the block. Mary may not have been told of every Catholic plot to put her on the English throne, but from the Ridolfi Plot of 1571 to the Babington Plot of 1586, Elizabeth's spymaster Sir Francis Walsingham and the royal council keenly assembled a case against her.[87] At first, Elizabeth resisted calls for Mary's death. By late 1586, however, she had been persuaded to sanction her trial and execution on the evidence of letters written during the Babington Plot.[88] Elizabeth's proclamation of the sentence announced that "the said Mary, pretending title to the same Crown, had compassed and imagined within the same realm divers things tending to the hurt, death and destruction of our royal person."[89] On 8 February 1587, Mary was beheaded at Fotheringhay Castle, Northamptonshire.[90]
Signature of Elizabeth I of EnglandMary was soon the focus for rebellion. In 1569, plotters in the Rising of the North talked of freeing her, and a scheme arose to marry her to Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk. Elizabeth reacted by sending Howard to the block. Mary may not have been told of every Catholic plot to put her on the English throne, but from the Ridolfi Plot of 1571 to the Babington Plot of 1586, Elizabeth's spymaster Sir Francis Walsingham and the royal council keenly assembled a case against her.[87] At first, Elizabeth resisted calls for Mary's death. By late 1586, however, she had been persuaded to sanction her trial and execution on the evidence of letters written during the Babington Plot.[88] Elizabeth's proclamation of the sentence announced that "the said Mary, pretending title to the same Crown, had compassed and imagined within the same realm divers things tending to the hurt, death and destruction of our royal person."[89] On 8 February 1587, Mary was beheaded at Fotheringhay Castle, Northamptonshire.[90]
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[edit] Spain
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==Spain==
Main article: Spanish Armada
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Main article: Anglo–Spanish War (1585)
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After the disastrous occupation and loss of Le Havre in 1562–1563, Elizabeth avoided military expeditions on the continent until 1585, when she sent an English army to aid the Protestant Dutch rebels against Philip II. This followed the deaths in 1584 of the allies William the Silent, Prince of Orange, and François, Duke of Anjou, and the surrender of a series of Dutch towns to Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma, Philip's governor of the Spanish Netherlands. In December 1584, an alliance between Philip II and the French Catholic League at Joinville undermined the ability of Anjou's brother, Henry III of France, to counter Spanish domination of the Netherlands. It also extended Spanish influence along the channel coast of France, where the Catholic League was strong, and exposed England to invasion.[75] The English and the Dutch reacted in August 1585 with the Treaty of Nonsuch, whereby Elizabeth, pressured by her advisors, promised military support to the Dutch. The treaty marked the beginning of the Anglo-Spanish War, which lasted until the Treaty of London in 1604.
 
After the disastrous occupation and loss of Le Havre in 1562–1563, Elizabeth avoided military expeditions on the continent until 1585, when she sent an English army to aid the Protestant Dutch rebels against Philip II. This followed the deaths in 1584 of the allies William the Silent, Prince of Orange, and François, Duke of Anjou, and the surrender of a series of Dutch towns to Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma, Philip's governor of the Spanish Netherlands. In December 1584, an alliance between Philip II and the French Catholic League at Joinville undermined the ability of Anjou's brother, Henry III of France, to counter Spanish domination of the Netherlands. It also extended Spanish influence along the channel coast of France, where the Catholic League was strong, and exposed England to invasion.[75] The English and the Dutch reacted in August 1585 with the Treaty of Nonsuch, whereby Elizabeth, pressured by her advisors, promised military support to the Dutch. The treaty marked the beginning of the Anglo-Spanish War, which lasted until the Treaty of London in 1604.
  
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Elizabeth and her parliament's failure to send Dudley sufficient money and troops, combined with his own incompetence as a military leader, doomed the campaign to impotence. Dudley finally resigned his command in December 1587, his reputation in tatters. By that time, Philip II had decided to take the war to England.[94]
 
Elizabeth and her parliament's failure to send Dudley sufficient money and troops, combined with his own incompetence as a military leader, doomed the campaign to impotence. Dudley finally resigned his command in December 1587, his reputation in tatters. By that time, Philip II had decided to take the war to England.[94]
  
   
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  On 12 July 1588, the Spanish Armada, a great fleet of ships, set sail for the channel, planning to ferry a Spanish invasion force under the Duke of Parma to the coast of southeast England from the Netherlands. The armada, however, was defeated by a combination of miscalculation,[95] misfortune, and an attack of English fire ships on 29 July off Gravelines which dispersed the Spanish ships to the northeast.[96] The armada straggled home to Spain in shattered remnants, after disastrous losses on the coast of Ireland (after some ships had tried to struggle back to Spain via the North Sea, and then back south past the west coast of Ireland).[97] Unaware of the armada's fate, English forces mustered to defend the country. Elizabeth inspected her troops at Tilbury in Essex on 8 August. Wearing a silver breastplate over a white velvet dress, she addressed them in one of her most famous speeches:[98]
Portrait of Elizabeth to commemorate the defeat of the Spanish Armada (1588), depicted in the background. Elizabeth's hand rests on the globe, symbolising her international power.On 12 July 1588, the Spanish Armada, a great fleet of ships, set sail for the channel, planning to ferry a Spanish invasion force under the Duke of Parma to the coast of southeast England from the Netherlands. The armada, however, was defeated by a combination of miscalculation,[95] misfortune, and an attack of English fire ships on 29 July off Gravelines which dispersed the Spanish ships to the northeast.[96] The armada straggled home to Spain in shattered remnants, after disastrous losses on the coast of Ireland (after some ships had tried to struggle back to Spain via the North Sea, and then back south past the west coast of Ireland).[97] Unaware of the armada's fate, English forces mustered to defend the country. Elizabeth inspected her troops at Tilbury in Essex on 8 August. Wearing a silver breastplate over a white velvet dress, she addressed them in one of her most famous speeches:[98]
+
  
 
My loving people, we have been persuaded by some that are careful of our safety, to take heed how we commit ourself to armed multitudes for fear of treachery; but I assure you, I do not desire to live to distrust my faithful and loving people....I know I have the body but of a weak and feeble woman, but I have the heart and stomach of a king, and of a King of England too, and think foul scorn that Parma or Spain, or any Prince of Europe should dare to invade the borders of my realm.[99]
 
My loving people, we have been persuaded by some that are careful of our safety, to take heed how we commit ourself to armed multitudes for fear of treachery; but I assure you, I do not desire to live to distrust my faithful and loving people....I know I have the body but of a weak and feeble woman, but I have the heart and stomach of a king, and of a King of England too, and think foul scorn that Parma or Spain, or any Prince of Europe should dare to invade the borders of my realm.[99]
Line 166: Line 123:
 
Though some historians have criticised Elizabeth on similar grounds,[102] Raleigh's verdict has more often been judged unfair. Elizabeth had good reason not to place too much trust in her commanders, who once in action tended, as she put it herself, "to be transported with an haviour of vainglory".[103]
 
Though some historians have criticised Elizabeth on similar grounds,[102] Raleigh's verdict has more often been judged unfair. Elizabeth had good reason not to place too much trust in her commanders, who once in action tended, as she put it herself, "to be transported with an haviour of vainglory".[103]
  
 
+
==France==
[edit] France
+
 
When the Protestant Henry IV inherited the French throne in 1589, Elizabeth sent him military support. It was her first venture into France since the retreat from Le Havre in 1563. Henry's succession was strongly contested by the Catholic League and by Philip II, and Elizabeth feared a Spanish takeover of the channel ports. The subsequent English campaigns in France, however, were disorganised and ineffective.[104] Lord Willoughby, largely ignoring Elizabeth's orders, roamed northern France to little effect, with an army of 4,000 men. He withdrew in disarray in December 1589, having lost half his troops. In 1591, the campaign of John Norreys, who led 3,000 men to Brittany, was even more of a disaster. As for all such expeditions, Elizabeth was unwilling to invest in the supplies and reinforcements requested by the commanders. Norreys left for London to plead in person for more support. In his absence, a Catholic League army almost destroyed the remains of his army at Craon, north-west France, in May 1591. In July, Elizabeth sent out another force under Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, to help Henry IV in besieging Rouen. The result was just as dismal. Essex accomplished nothing and returned home in January 1592. Henry abandoned the siege in April.[105] As usual, Elizabeth lacked control over her commanders once they were abroad. "Where he is, or what he doth, or what he is to do," she wrote of Essex, "we are ignorant".[106]
 
When the Protestant Henry IV inherited the French throne in 1589, Elizabeth sent him military support. It was her first venture into France since the retreat from Le Havre in 1563. Henry's succession was strongly contested by the Catholic League and by Philip II, and Elizabeth feared a Spanish takeover of the channel ports. The subsequent English campaigns in France, however, were disorganised and ineffective.[104] Lord Willoughby, largely ignoring Elizabeth's orders, roamed northern France to little effect, with an army of 4,000 men. He withdrew in disarray in December 1589, having lost half his troops. In 1591, the campaign of John Norreys, who led 3,000 men to Brittany, was even more of a disaster. As for all such expeditions, Elizabeth was unwilling to invest in the supplies and reinforcements requested by the commanders. Norreys left for London to plead in person for more support. In his absence, a Catholic League army almost destroyed the remains of his army at Craon, north-west France, in May 1591. In July, Elizabeth sent out another force under Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, to help Henry IV in besieging Rouen. The result was just as dismal. Essex accomplished nothing and returned home in January 1592. Henry abandoned the siege in April.[105] As usual, Elizabeth lacked control over her commanders once they were abroad. "Where he is, or what he doth, or what he is to do," she wrote of Essex, "we are ignorant".[106]
  
  
[edit] Ireland
+
==Ireland==
 
Although Ireland was one of her two kingdoms, Elizabeth faced a hostile—and in places virtually autonomous[107]—Catholic population that was willing to plot with her enemies. Her policy there was to grant land to her courtiers and prevent the rebels from giving Spain a base from which to attack England.[74] In response to a series of uprisings, the English forces pursued scorched-earth tactics, burning the land and slaughtering man, woman and child. During a revolt in Munster led by Gerald FitzGerald, Earl of Desmond, in 1582, an estimated 30,000 Irish people starved to death. The poet Edmund Spenser wrote that the victims "were brought to such wretchedness as that any stony heart would have rued the same".[108] Elizabeth advised her commanders that the Irish, "that rude and barbarous nation", be well treated; but she showed no remorse when force and bloodshed were deemed necessary.[109]
 
Although Ireland was one of her two kingdoms, Elizabeth faced a hostile—and in places virtually autonomous[107]—Catholic population that was willing to plot with her enemies. Her policy there was to grant land to her courtiers and prevent the rebels from giving Spain a base from which to attack England.[74] In response to a series of uprisings, the English forces pursued scorched-earth tactics, burning the land and slaughtering man, woman and child. During a revolt in Munster led by Gerald FitzGerald, Earl of Desmond, in 1582, an estimated 30,000 Irish people starved to death. The poet Edmund Spenser wrote that the victims "were brought to such wretchedness as that any stony heart would have rued the same".[108] Elizabeth advised her commanders that the Irish, "that rude and barbarous nation", be well treated; but she showed no remorse when force and bloodshed were deemed necessary.[109]
  
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[edit] Later years and death
+
==Later years and death==
 
As Elizabeth aged and marriage became unlikely, her image gradually changed. She was portrayed as Belphoebe or Astraea, and after the Armada, as Gloriana, the eternally youthful Faerie Queene of Edmund Spenser's poem. Her painted portraits became less realistic and more a set of enigmatic icons that made her look much younger than she was. In fact, her skin had been scarred by smallpox in 1562, leaving her half bald and dependent on wigs and cosmetics.[113][114] Sir Walter Raleigh called her "a lady whom time had surprised".[115] However, the more Elizabeth's beauty faded, the more her courtiers praised it.[113]
 
As Elizabeth aged and marriage became unlikely, her image gradually changed. She was portrayed as Belphoebe or Astraea, and after the Armada, as Gloriana, the eternally youthful Faerie Queene of Edmund Spenser's poem. Her painted portraits became less realistic and more a set of enigmatic icons that made her look much younger than she was. In fact, her skin had been scarred by smallpox in 1562, leaving her half bald and dependent on wigs and cosmetics.[113][114] Sir Walter Raleigh called her "a lady whom time had surprised".[115] However, the more Elizabeth's beauty faded, the more her courtiers praised it.[113]
  
Line 198: Line 154:
  
 
   
 
   
Elizabeth's funeral cortège, 1603, sometimes attributed to William CamdenElizabeth's coffin was carried downriver at night to Whitehall, on a barge lit with torches. At her funeral on 28 April, the coffin was taken to Westminster Abbey on a hearse drawn by four horses hung with black velvet. In the words of the chronicler John Stow:
+
Elizabeth's coffin was carried downriver at night to Whitehall, on a barge lit with torches. At her funeral on 28 April, the coffin was taken to Westminster Abbey on a hearse drawn by four horses hung with black velvet. In the words of the chronicler John Stow:
  
 
Westminster was surcharged with multitudes of all sorts of people in their streets, houses, windows, leads and gutters, that came out to see the obsequy, and when they beheld her statue lying upon the coffin, there was such a general sighing, groaning and weeping as the like hath not been seen or known in the memory of man.[139]
 
Westminster was surcharged with multitudes of all sorts of people in their streets, houses, windows, leads and gutters, that came out to see the obsequy, and when they beheld her statue lying upon the coffin, there was such a general sighing, groaning and weeping as the like hath not been seen or known in the memory of man.[139]
  
  
[edit] Legacy
+
==Legacy==
 
Elizabeth was lamented, but the people were relieved at her death.[140] A new age was born, and at first the signs were good, with the ending of the war against Spain in 1604 and lower taxes. Until the death of Robert Cecil in 1612, the government ran along much the same lines as before.[141] James I's rule, however, became unpopular when he turned state affairs over to court favourites, and in the 1620s there was a nostalgic revival of the cult of Elizabeth.[142] Elizabeth was praised as a heroine of the Protestant cause and the ruler of a golden age. James was depicted as a Catholic sympathiser, presiding over a corrupt court.[143] The triumphalist image that Elizabeth had cultivated towards the end of her reign, against a background of factionalism and military and economic difficulties,[144] was taken at face value and her reputation inflated. Godfrey Goodman, Bishop of Gloucester, recalled: "When we had experience of a Scottish government, the Queen did seem to revive. Then was her memory much magnified."[145] Elizabeth's reign became idealised as a time when crown, church and parliament had worked in constitutional balance.[146]
 
Elizabeth was lamented, but the people were relieved at her death.[140] A new age was born, and at first the signs were good, with the ending of the war against Spain in 1604 and lower taxes. Until the death of Robert Cecil in 1612, the government ran along much the same lines as before.[141] James I's rule, however, became unpopular when he turned state affairs over to court favourites, and in the 1620s there was a nostalgic revival of the cult of Elizabeth.[142] Elizabeth was praised as a heroine of the Protestant cause and the ruler of a golden age. James was depicted as a Catholic sympathiser, presiding over a corrupt court.[143] The triumphalist image that Elizabeth had cultivated towards the end of her reign, against a background of factionalism and military and economic difficulties,[144] was taken at face value and her reputation inflated. Godfrey Goodman, Bishop of Gloucester, recalled: "When we had experience of a Scottish government, the Queen did seem to revive. Then was her memory much magnified."[145] Elizabeth's reign became idealised as a time when crown, church and parliament had worked in constitutional balance.[146]
  
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[edit] Ancestors
+
==Ancestors==
[show]v • d • eAncestors of Elizabeth I of England  
+
*16. Owen Tudor
                                 
+
*8. Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond 
   
+
*17. Catherine of Valois
   16. Owen Tudor
+
*4. Henry VII of England 
 +
*18. John Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset
 +
*9. Margaret Beaufort 
 +
*19. Margaret Beauchamp of Bletso
 +
*2. Henry VIII of England 
 +
*20. Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York
 +
*10. Edward IV of England 
 +
*21. Cecily Neville
 +
*5. Elizabeth of York 
 +
*22. Richard Woodville, 1st Earl Rivers
 +
*11. Elizabeth Woodville 
 +
*23. Jacquetta of Luxembourg
 +
*1. Elizabeth I of England  
 +
*24. Geoffrey Boleyn
 +
*12. William Boleyn 
 +
*25. Anne Hoo
 +
*6. Thomas Boleyn, 1st Earl of Wiltshire         
 +
*26. Thomas Butler, 7th Earl of Ormonde
 +
*13. Margaret Butler 
 +
*27. Anne Hankford  
 +
*3. Anne Boleyn                 
 +
*28. John Howard, 1st Duke of Norfolk
 +
*14. Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk    
 +
*29. Catherine de Moleyns
 +
*7. Elizabeth Howard         
 +
*30. Frederick Tilney
 +
*15. Elizabeth Tilney 
 +
*31. Elizabeth Cheney
 
    
 
    
         
+
==Notes and References==
+
#^ "I mean to direct all my actions by good advice and counsel." Elizabeth's first speech as queen, Hatfield House, 20 November 1558. Loades, 35.  
  8. Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond 
+
#^ Starkey, 5.  
 
+
#^ Neale, 386.  
               
+
#^ In 1593, the French ambassador confessed: "When I see her enraged against any person whatever, I wish myself in Calcutta, fearing her anger like death itself". Somerset, 731–32.  
+
#^ Somerset, 729.  
  17. Catherine of Valois
+
#^ "The painter...is unknown, but in a competently Flemish style he depicts the daughter of Anne Boleyn as quiet and studious-looking, ornament in her attire as secondary to the plainness of line that emphasizes her youth. Great is the contrast with the awesome fantasy of the later portraits: the pallid, mask-like features, the extravagance of headdress and ruff, the padded ornateness that seemed to exclude all humanity." Gaunt, 37.  
 
+
#^ Somerset, 4.  
         
+
#^ Loades, 3–5  
+
#^ Somerset, 4–5.  
  4. Henry VII of England 
+
#^ Loades, 6–7.  
 
+
#^ Haigh, 1–3.  
                     
+
#^ In the act of July 1536, it was stated that Elizabeth was "illegitimate... and utterly foreclosed, excluded and banned to claim, challenge, or demand any inheritance as lawful heir...to [the King] by lineal descent". Elizabeth who was an incredibly bright child, did not notice that her mother was gone but she did notice the change of her name. She apparently said to her governess. "how haps it governor, yesterday my Lady Princess, today but my Lady Elizabeth?" Somerset, 10.  
+
#^ "It had taken Henry VIII a month to dispose of his wife on a charge of treason, sweep some of her friends to the block with her, bastardise her child, and acquire a new queen. Here was the power of the Tudor monarchy in action, with the King bending his Council, the Church, and the law to do his will." Haigh, 1.  
  18. John Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset
+
#^ Loades, 7–8.  
 
+
#^ Davenport, 32.  
         
+
#^ Somerset, 11.  
+
#^ Our knowledge of Elizabeth’s schooling and precocity comes largely from the memoirs of Roger Ascham, also the tutor of Prince Edward. Loades, 8–10.  
  9. Margaret Beaufort 
+
#^ Somerset, 25.  
 
+
#^ Loades, 21.  
               
+
#^ Loades, 11.  
+
#^ Loades, 14.  
  19. Margaret Beauchamp of Bletso
+
#^ "Kat Ashley told another of Elizabeth’s servants, Thomas Parry, that the Queen lost patience with both her husband and Elizabeth after she ‘suddenly came upon them where they were all alone, he having her in his arms’.” Somerset, 23.  
 
+
#^ She moved into the household of Catherine Ashley’s sister Joan and her husband, Sir Anthony Denny, at Cheshunt. Loades, 16.  
         
+
#^ Haigh, 8.  
+
#^ Not only Elizabeth but Princess Mary and Lady Jane Grey had lived in Seymour's household at various times. Seymour had also "wormed his way" into King Edward’s confidence by slipping him pocket money and calling the Lord Protector stingy; and he had tried to have himself appointed the governor of the King’s person. Neale, 32.  
  2. Henry VIII of England 
+
#^ Williams, 24.  
 
+
#^ Loades, 14, 16.  
                           
+
#^ Neale, 33.  
+
#^ Loades, 24–25.  
  20. Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York
+
#^ Elizabeth had assembled 2,000 horsemen, "a remarkable tribute to the size of her affinity". Loades 25.  
 
+
#^ Loades, 26.  
         
+
#^ Loades, 27.  
+
#^ Neale, 45.  
  10. Edward IV of England 
+
#^ Somerset, 49.  
 
+
#^ Loades, 28.  
               
+
#^ Somerset, 51.  
+
#^ Loades, 29.  
  21. Cecily Neville
+
#^ "The wives of Wycombe passed cake and wafers to her until her litter became so burdened that she had to beg them to stop." Neale, 49.  
 
+
#^ Loades, 32.  
         
+
#^ Somerset, 66.  
+
#^ Neale, 53.  
  5. Elizabeth of York 
+
#^ Loades, 33.  
 
+
#^ Neale, 59.  
                     
+
#^ Somerset, 71.  
+
#^ Somerset, 89–90. The "Festival Book" account, from the British Library  
  22. Richard Woodville, 1st Earl Rivers
+
#^ Neale, 70.  
 
+
#^ Loades, 34.  
         
+
#^ Another copy of the lost original has been attributed both to Nicholas Hilliard and to Levina Teerlinc. See Strong, 163, and Doran, 43.  
+
#^ Full document reproduced by Loades, 36–37.  
  11. Elizabeth Woodville 
+
#^ Somerset, 92.  
 
+
#^ Loades, 46.  
               
+
#^ "It was fortunate that ten out of twenty-six bishoprics were vacant, for of late there had been a high rate of mortality among the episcopate, and a fever had conveniently carried off Mary's Archbishop of Canterbury, Reginald Pole, less than twenty-four hours after her own death". Somerset, 98.  
+
#^ "There were no less than ten sees unrepresented through death or illness and the carelessness of 'the accursed cardinal' [Pole]". Black, 10.  
  23. Jacquetta of Luxembourg
+
#^ Somerset, 101–103.  
 
+
#^ Loades, 38.  
         
+
#^ Haigh, 19.  
+
#^ Loades, 39.  
  1. Elizabeth I of England 
+
#^ Loades, 42.  
 
+
#^ In April 1559, Amy had been reported as suffering from a "malady in one of her breasts", and it is now presumed that she had cancer. At the time, it was widely believed that Dudley had done away with her in order to marry the queen. Somerset, 166–167.  
                                 
+
#^ Loades, 42–45.  
+
#^ Haigh, 17.  
  24. Geoffrey Boleyn
+
#^ Loades, 40.  
 
+
#^ Hasler, 421–424.  
         
+
#^ Haigh, 20–21.  
+
#^ When in 1566 a parliamentary commission urged Elizabeth to name an heir, she referred to the way "a second person, as I have been" had been used as the focus of plots against her sister, Queen Mary. Haigh, 22–23.  
  12. William Boleyn 
+
#^ Haigh, 23.  
 
+
#^ Haigh, 24.  
               
+
#^ Frieda, 397.  
+
#^ Loades, 51.  
  25. Anne Hoo
+
#^ Loades, 53–54.  
 
+
#^ Loades, 54.  
         
+
#^ Somerset, 408.  
+
#^ Frieda, 191.  
  6. Thomas Boleyn, 1st Earl of Wiltshire 
+
#^ Loades, 55.  
 
+
#^ Haigh, 135.  
                     
+
#^ Loades, 61.  
+
#^ Flynn and Spence, 126–128.  
  26. Thomas Butler, 7th Earl of Ormonde
+
#^ Somerset, 607–611.  
 
+
#^ Haigh, 131.  
         
+
#^ Mary's position as heir derived from her great-grandfather Henry VII of England, through his daughter Margaret Tudor. In her own words, "I am the nearest kinswoman she hath, being both of us of one house and stock, the Queen my good sister coming of the brother, and I of the sister". Guy, 115.  
+
#^ On Elizabeth's accession, Mary's Guise relatives had pronounced her Queen of England and had the English arms emblazoned with those of Scotland and France on her plate and furniture. Guy, 96–97.  
  13. Margaret Butler 
+
#^ By the terms of the treaty, both British and French troops withdrew from Scotland. Haigh, 132.  
 
+
#^ Loades, 67.  
               
+
#^ Loades, 68.  
+
#^ Letter to Mary, Queen of Scots, 23 June 1567." Quoted by Loades, 69–70.  
  27. Anne Hankford
+
#^ Loades, 72–73.  
 
+
#^ Loades, 73.  
         
+
#^ Guy, 483–484.  
+
#^ Loades, 78–79.  
  3. Anne Boleyn 
+
#^ Guy, 1–11.  
 
+
#^ Haigh, 134.  
                           
+
#^ Haigh, 137.  
+
#^ Letter to Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, 10 February 1586, delivered by Sir Thomas Heneage. Loades, 94.  
  28. John Howard, 1st Duke of Norfolk
+
#^ Haigh, 138.  
 
+
#^ When the Spanish naval commander, the Duke of Medina Sidonia, reached the coast near Calais, he found the Duke of Parma's troops unready and was forced to wait, giving the English the opportunity to launch their attack. Loades, 64.  
         
+
#^ Black, 349.  
+
#^ Neale, 300.  
  14. Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk 
+
#^ Though most historians accept that Elizabeth gave such a speech, its authenticity has been questioned (Frye, The Myth of Elizabeth at Tilbury, 1992), since it was not published until 1654. Doran, 235–236.  
 
+
#^ Somerset, 591.
               
+
#• Neale, 297–98.  
+
#^ Black, 353.  
  29. Catherine de Moleyns
+
#^ Haigh, 145.  
 
+
#^ For example, C. H. Wilson (Berkeley, 1970) castigates Elizabeth for half-heartedness in the war against Spain. Haigh, 183.  
         
+
#^ "In some respects she had a firmer grasp of strategy than the men to whom she had to entrust the conduct of the war, and certainly much more damage was caused by her commanders' failure to adhere to carefully formulated instructions than by Elizabeth's vacillation or attempts to economise." Somerset, 655.  
+
#^ Haigh, 142.  
  7. Elizabeth Howard 
+
#^ Haigh, 143.  
 
+
#^ Haigh, 143–144.  
                     
+
#^ One observer wrote that Ulster, for example, was "as unknown to the English here as the most inland part of Virginia". Somerset, 667.  
+
#^ Somerset, 668.  
  30. Frederick Tilney
+
#^ Somerset, 668–669.  
 
+
#^ Loades, 98.  
         
+
#^ In a letter of 19 July 1599 to Essex, Elizabeth wrote: "For what can be more true (if things be rightly examined) than that your two month's journey has brought in never a capital rebel against whom it had been worthy to have adventured one thousand men". Loades, 98.  
+
#^ Loades, 98–99.  
  15. Elizabeth Tilney 
+
#^ Loades, 92.  
 
+
#^ Gaunt, 37.  
               
+
#^ Haigh, 171.  
+
#^ "The metaphor of drama is an appropriate one for Elizabeth's reign, for her power was an illusion — and an illusion was her power. Like Henry IV of France, she projected an image of herself which brought stability and prestige to her country. By constant attention to the details of her total performance, she kept the rest of the cast on their toes and kept her own part as queen." Haigh, 179.  
  31. Elizabeth Cheney
+
#^ Loades, 93.  
 
+
#^ Loades, 97.  
         
+
#^ Black, 410.  
+
#^ A Patent of Monopoly gave the holder control over an aspect of trade or manufacture. See Neale, 382.  
+
#^ Williams, 208.  
 
+
#^ Black, 192–194.  
 
+
#^ She gave the speech at Whitehall Palace to a deputation of 140 members, who afterwards all kissed her hand. Neale, 383–384.  
[edit] See also
+
#^ Loades, 86.  
Part of a series on
+
#^ Haigh, 155.  
Anglicanism
+
#^ Black, 355–356.  
+
#^ Black, 355.  
Background
+
#^ This criticism of Elizabeth was noted by Elizabeth's early biographers William Camden and John Clapham. For a detailed account of such criticisms and of Elizabeth's "government by illusion", see chapter 8, "The Queen and the People", Haigh, 149–169.  
King James Bible · Christianity · Catholicism · Calvinism · Apostolic Succession · English Reformation · Protestantism
+
#^ Black, 239.  
+
#^ Black, 239–245.  
People
+
#^ Haigh, 176.  
Martyrs · John Wycliffe · William Tyndale · Henry VIII · Thomas Cranmer · Thomas Cromwell · Elizabeth I · Richard Hooker · William Laud · Charles I · Saints
+
#^ After Essex's downfall, James VI of Scotland referred to Cecil as "king there in effect". Croft, 48.  
+
#^ Cecil wrote to James, "The subject itself is so perilous to touch amongst us as it setteth a mark upon his head forever that hatcheth such a bird". Willson, 154.  
Liturgy and Worship
+
#^ Willson, 154.  
Book of Common Prayer · High Church · Low Church · Broad Church · Oxford Movement · 39 Articles · Homilies · Doctrine · Ministry · Sacraments
+
#^ Willson, 155.  
+
#^ Neale, 385.  
Organisation
+
#^ Black, 411.  
Anglican Communion Instruments of Communion:
+
#^ Black, 410–411.  
Archbishop of Canterbury · Lambeth Conferences · Primates' Meeting · Anglican Consultative Council
+
#^ Weir, 486.  
 
+
#^ Loades, 100.  
 
+
#^ Willson, 333.  
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
#^ Somerset, 726.  
 
+
#^ Strong, 164.  
Continuing Anglican movement ·
+
#^ Haigh, 170.  
 
+
#^ Weir, 488.  
This box: view • talk • edit
+
#^ Dobson and Watson, 257.  
Anglicanism portal
+
#^ Strong, 163–164.  
+
#^ Haigh, 175, 182.  
Cultural depictions of Elizabeth I of England
+
#^ Dobson and Watson, 258.  
English Renaissance
+
#^ The age of Elizabeth was redrawn as one of chivalry, epitomised by courtly encounters between the queen and sea-dog "heroes" such as Drake and Raleigh. Some Victorian narratives, such as Raleigh laying his cloak before the queen or presenting her with a potato, remain part of the myth. Dobson and Watson, 258.  
Protestant Reformation
+
#^ Haigh, 175.  
Tudor re-conquest of Ireland
+
#^ In his preface to the 1952 reprint of Queen Elizabeth I, J. E. Neale observed: "The book was written before such words as "ideological", "fifth column", and "cold war" became current; and it is perhaps as well that they are not there. But the ideas are present, as is the idea of romantic leadership of a nation in peril, because they were present in Elizabethan times".  
Early modern Europe
+
#^ Haigh, 182.  
 
+
#^ Haigh, 183.  
[edit] Notes and References
+
#^ Black, 408–409.  
^ "I mean to direct all my actions by good advice and counsel." Elizabeth's first speech as queen, Hatfield House, 20 November 1558. Loades, 35.  
+
#^ Haigh, 142–147, 174–177.  
^ a b Starkey, 5.  
+
#^ Loades, 46–50.  
^ Neale, 386.  
+
#^ Weir, 487.  
^ In 1593, the French ambassador confessed: "When I see her enraged against any person whatever, I wish myself in Calcutta, fearing her anger like death itself". Somerset, 731–32.  
+
#^ Hogge, 9–10.  
^ Somerset, 729.  
+
#^ The new state religion was condemned at the time in such terms as "a cloaked papistry, or mingle mangle". Somerset, 102.  
^ "The painter...is unknown, but in a competently Flemish style he depicts the daughter of Anne Boleyn as quiet and studious-looking, ornament in her attire as secondary to the plainness of line that emphasizes her youth. Great is the contrast with the awesome fantasy of the later portraits: the pallid, mask-like features, the extravagance of headdress and ruff, the padded ornateness that seemed to exclude all humanity." Gaunt, 37.  
+
#^ "The problem with the 'Protestant heroine' image was that Elizabeth did not always live up to it. London Protestants were horrified in 1561 when they heard of the plan to get Spanish support for a Dudley marriage by offering concessions on religion, and it took Elizabeth almost a decade to re-establish her Protestant credentials." Haigh, 165.  
^ Somerset, 4.  
+
#^ Haigh, 45–46, 177.  
^ Loades, 3–5  
+
#^ Black, 14–15.  
^ Somerset, 4–5.  
+
#^ Collinson, 28–29.  
^ Loades, 6–7.  
+
#^ Williams, 50.  
^ Haigh, 1–3.  
+
#^ Haigh, 42.  
^ In the act of July 1536, it was stated that Elizabeth was "illegitimate... and utterly foreclosed, excluded and banned to claim, challenge, or demand any inheritance as lawful heir...to [the King] by lineal descent". Elizabeth who was an incredibly bright child, did not notice that her mother was gone but she did notice the change of her name. She apparently said to her governess. "how haps it governor, yesterday my Lady Princess, today but my Lady Elizabeth?" Somerset, 10.  
+
#^ Somerset, 727.  
^ "It had taken Henry VIII a month to dispose of his wife on a charge of treason, sweep some of her friends to the block with her, bastardise her child, and acquire a new queen. Here was the power of the Tudor monarchy in action, with the King bending his Council, the Church, and the law to do his will." Haigh, 1.  
+
#^ Hogge, 9n.  
^ Loades, 7–8.  
+
#^ Loades, 1.  
^ Davenport, 32.  
+
#^ As Elizabeth's Lord Keeper, Sir Nicholas Bacon, put it on her behalf to parliament in 1559, the queen "is not, nor ever meaneth to be, so wedded to her own will and fantasy that for the satisfaction thereof she will do anything...to bring any bondage or servitude to her people, or give any just occasion to them of any inward grudge whereby any tumults or stirs might arise as hath done of late days". Starkey, 7.  
^ Somerset, 11.  
+
#^ Somerset, 75–76.  
^ Our knowledge of Elizabeth’s schooling and precocity comes largely from the memoirs of Roger Ascham, also the tutor of Prince Edward. Loades, 8–10.  
+
#^ Edwards, 205.  
^ Somerset, 25.  
+
#^ Starkey, 6–7.  
^ Loades, 21.  
+
^ a b Loades, 11.  
+
^ Loades, 14.  
+
^ "Kat Ashley told another of Elizabeth’s servants, Thomas Parry, that the Queen lost patience with both her husband and Elizabeth after she ‘suddenly came upon them where they were all alone, he having her in his arms’.” Somerset, 23.  
+
^ She moved into the household of Catherine Ashley’s sister Joan and her husband, Sir Anthony Denny, at Cheshunt. Loades, 16.  
+
^ Haigh, 8.  
+
^ Not only Elizabeth but Princess Mary and Lady Jane Grey had lived in Seymour's household at various times. Seymour had also "wormed his way" into King Edward’s confidence by slipping him pocket money and calling the Lord Protector stingy; and he had tried to have himself appointed the governor of the King’s person. Neale, 32.  
+
^ Williams, 24.  
+
^ Loades, 14, 16.  
+
^ a b Neale, 33.  
+
^ Loades, 24–25.  
+
^ Elizabeth had assembled 2,000 horsemen, "a remarkable tribute to the size of her affinity". Loades 25.  
+
^ Loades, 26.  
+
^ Loades, 27.  
+
^ Neale, 45.  
+
^ Somerset, 49.  
+
^ Loades, 28.  
+
^ Somerset, 51.  
+
^ a b Loades, 29.  
+
^ "The wives of Wycombe passed cake and wafers to her until her litter became so burdened that she had to beg them to stop." Neale, 49.  
+
^ Loades, 32.  
+
^ Somerset, 66.  
+
^ Neale, 53.  
+
^ Loades, 33.  
+
^ Neale, 59.  
+
^ Somerset, 71.  
+
^ Somerset, 89–90. The "Festival Book" account, from the British Library  
+
^ Neale, 70.  
+
^ Loades, 34.  
+
^ Another copy of the lost original has been attributed both to Nicholas Hilliard and to Levina Teerlinc. See Strong, 163, and Doran, 43.  
+
^ Full document reproduced by Loades, 36–37.  
+
^ Somerset, 92.  
+
^ Loades, 46.  
+
^ "It was fortunate that ten out of twenty-six bishoprics were vacant, for of late there had been a high rate of mortality among the episcopate, and a fever had conveniently carried off Mary's Archbishop of Canterbury, Reginald Pole, less than twenty-four hours after her own death". Somerset, 98.  
+
^ "There were no less than ten sees unrepresented through death or illness and the carelessness of 'the accursed cardinal' [Pole]". Black, 10.  
+
^ Somerset, 101–103.  
+
^ Loades, 38.  
+
^ Haigh, 19.  
+
^ Loades, 39.  
+
^ Loades, 42.  
+
^ In April 1559, Amy had been reported as suffering from a "malady in one of her breasts", and it is now presumed that she had cancer. At the time, it was widely believed that Dudley had done away with her in order to marry the queen. Somerset, 166–167.  
+
^ Loades, 42–45.  
+
^ a b c Haigh, 17.  
+
^ Loades, 40.  
+
^ Hasler, 421–424.  
+
^ Haigh, 20–21.  
+
^ When in 1566 a parliamentary commission urged Elizabeth to name an heir, she referred to the way "a second person, as I have been" had been used as the focus of plots against her sister, Queen Mary. Haigh, 22–23.  
+
^ a b Haigh, 23.  
+
^ Haigh, 24.  
+
^ Frieda, 397.  
+
^ Loades, 51.  
+
^ Loades, 53–54.  
+
^ Loades, 54.  
+
^ Somerset, 408.  
+
^ Frieda, 191.  
+
^ a b Loades, 55.  
+
^ a b Haigh, 135.  
+
^ a b Loades, 61.  
+
^ Flynn and Spence, 126–128.  
+
^ Somerset, 607–611.  
+
^ Haigh, 131.  
+
^ Mary's position as heir derived from her great-grandfather Henry VII of England, through his daughter Margaret Tudor. In her own words, "I am the nearest kinswoman she hath, being both of us of one house and stock, the Queen my good sister coming of the brother, and I of the sister". Guy, 115.  
+
^ On Elizabeth's accession, Mary's Guise relatives had pronounced her Queen of England and had the English arms emblazoned with those of Scotland and France on her plate and furniture. Guy, 96–97.  
+
^ By the terms of the treaty, both British and French troops withdrew from Scotland. Haigh, 132.  
+
^ Loades, 67.  
+
^ a b Loades, 68.  
+
^ Letter to Mary, Queen of Scots, 23 June 1567." Quoted by Loades, 69–70.  
+
^ Loades, 72–73.  
+
^ Loades, 73.  
+
^ Guy, 483–484.  
+
^ Loades, 78–79.  
+
^ Guy, 1–11.  
+
^ Haigh, 134.  
+
^ Haigh, 137.  
+
^ Letter to Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, 10 February 1586, delivered by Sir Thomas Heneage. Loades, 94.  
+
^ a b Haigh, 138.  
+
^ When the Spanish naval commander, the Duke of Medina Sidonia, reached the coast near Calais, he found the Duke of Parma's troops unready and was forced to wait, giving the English the opportunity to launch their attack. Loades, 64.  
+
^ Black, 349.  
+
^ a b Neale, 300.  
+
^ Though most historians accept that Elizabeth gave such a speech, its authenticity has been questioned (Frye, The Myth of Elizabeth at Tilbury, 1992), since it was not published until 1654. Doran, 235–236.  
+
^ Somerset, 591.
+
• Neale, 297–98.  
+
^ a b Black, 353.  
+
^ Haigh, 145.  
+
^ For example, C. H. Wilson (Berkeley, 1970) castigates Elizabeth for half-heartedness in the war against Spain. Haigh, 183.  
+
^ "In some respects she had a firmer grasp of strategy than the men to whom she had to entrust the conduct of the war, and certainly much more damage was caused by her commanders' failure to adhere to carefully formulated instructions than by Elizabeth's vacillation or attempts to economise." Somerset, 655.  
+
^ a b Haigh, 142.  
+
^ Haigh, 143.  
+
^ Haigh, 143–144.  
+
^ One observer wrote that Ulster, for example, was "as unknown to the English here as the most inland part of Virginia". Somerset, 667.  
+
^ Somerset, 668.  
+
^ Somerset, 668–669.  
+
^ Loades, 98.  
+
^ In a letter of 19 July 1599 to Essex, Elizabeth wrote: "For what can be more true (if things be rightly examined) than that your two month's journey has brought in never a capital rebel against whom it had been worthy to have adventured one thousand men". Loades, 98.  
+
^ Loades, 98–99.  
+
^ a b Loades, 92.  
+
^ Gaunt, 37.  
+
^ Haigh, 171.  
+
^ "The metaphor of drama is an appropriate one for Elizabeth's reign, for her power was an illusion—and an illusion was her power. Like Henry IV of France, she projected an image of herself which brought stability and prestige to her country. By constant attention to the details of her total performance, she kept the rest of the cast on their toes and kept her own part as queen." Haigh, 179.  
+
^ Loades, 93.  
+
^ Loades, 97.  
+
^ Black, 410.  
+
^ A Patent of Monopoly gave the holder control over an aspect of trade or manufacture. See Neale, 382.  
+
^ Williams, 208.  
+
^ Black, 192–194.  
+
^ She gave the speech at Whitehall Palace to a deputation of 140 members, who afterwards all kissed her hand. Neale, 383–384.  
+
^ Loades, 86.  
+
^ a b Haigh, 155.  
+
^ Black, 355–356.  
+
^ Black, 355.  
+
^ This criticism of Elizabeth was noted by Elizabeth's early biographers William Camden and John Clapham. For a detailed account of such criticisms and of Elizabeth's "government by illusion", see chapter 8, "The Queen and the People", Haigh, 149–169.  
+
^ Black, 239.  
+
^ Black, 239–245.  
+
^ Haigh, 176.  
+
^ After Essex's downfall, James VI of Scotland referred to Cecil as "king there in effect". Croft, 48.  
+
^ Cecil wrote to James, "The subject itself is so perilous to touch amongst us as it setteth a mark upon his head forever that hatcheth such a bird". Willson, 154.  
+
^ Willson, 154.  
+
^ Willson, 155.  
+
^ Neale, 385.  
+
^ Black, 411.  
+
^ Black, 410–411.  
+
^ Weir, 486.  
+
^ a b Loades, 100.  
+
^ Willson, 333.  
+
^ a b Somerset, 726.  
+
^ Strong, 164.  
+
^ Haigh, 170.  
+
^ Weir, 488.  
+
^ Dobson and Watson, 257.  
+
^ Strong, 163–164.  
+
^ Haigh, 175, 182.  
+
^ Dobson and Watson, 258.  
+
^ The age of Elizabeth was redrawn as one of chivalry, epitomised by courtly encounters between the queen and sea-dog "heroes" such as Drake and Raleigh. Some Victorian narratives, such as Raleigh laying his cloak before the queen or presenting her with a potato, remain part of the myth. Dobson and Watson, 258.  
+
^ Haigh, 175.  
+
^ In his preface to the 1952 reprint of Queen Elizabeth I, J. E. Neale observed: "The book was written before such words as "ideological", "fifth column", and "cold war" became current; and it is perhaps as well that they are not there. But the ideas are present, as is the idea of romantic leadership of a nation in peril, because they were present in Elizabethan times".  
+
^ Haigh, 182.  
+
^ Haigh, 183.  
+
^ Black, 408–409.  
+
^ Haigh, 142–147, 174–177.  
+
^ Loades, 46–50.  
+
^ Weir, 487.  
+
^ Hogge, 9–10.  
+
^ The new state religion was condemned at the time in such terms as "a cloaked papistry, or mingle mangle". Somerset, 102.  
+
^ "The problem with the 'Protestant heroine' image was that Elizabeth did not always live up to it. London Protestants were horrified in 1561 when they heard of the plan to get Spanish support for a Dudley marriage by offering concessions on religion, and it took Elizabeth almost a decade to re-establish her Protestant credentials." Haigh, 165.  
+
^ Haigh, 45–46, 177.  
+
^ Black, 14–15.  
+
^ Collinson, 28–29.  
+
^ Williams, 50.  
+
^ Haigh, 42.  
+
^ a b c Somerset, 727.  
+
^ Hogge, 9n.  
+
^ Loades, 1.  
+
^ As Elizabeth's Lord Keeper, Sir Nicholas Bacon, put it on her behalf to parliament in 1559, the queen "is not, nor ever meaneth to be, so wedded to her own will and fantasy that for the satisfaction thereof she will do anything...to bring any bondage or servitude to her people, or give any just occasion to them of any inward grudge whereby any tumults or stirs might arise as hath done of late days". Starkey, 7.  
+
^ Somerset, 75–76.  
+
^ Edwards, 205.  
+
^ Starkey, 6–7.  
+
 
+
[edit] Bibliography
+
Black, J. B. The Reign of Elizabeth: 1558–1603. Oxford: Clarendon, (1936) 1945. OCLC 5077207
+
Brimacombe, Peter. All the Queen's Men: The World of Elizabeth I. New York: St Martin's Press, 2000. ISBN 0312232519.
+
Camden, William. History of the Most Renowned and Victorious Princess Elizabeth. Wallace T. MacCaffrey (ed). Chicago: University of Chicago Press, selected chapters, 1970 edition. OCLC 59210072.
+
Clapham, John. Elizabeth of England. E. P. Read and Conyers Read (eds). Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1951. OCLC 1350639.
+
Collinson, Patrick. "The Mongrel Religion of Elizabethan England." Elizabeth: The Exhibition at the National Maritime Museum. Susan Doran (ed.). London: Chatto and Windus, 2003. ISBN 0701174765.
+
Croft, Pauline. King James. Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. ISBN 0333613953.
+
Davenport, Cyril. English Embroidered Bookbindings. Alfred Pollard (ed.). London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner and Co., 1899. OCLC 705685.
+
Dobson, Michael; and Nicola Watson. "Elizabeth's Legacy". Elizabeth: The Exhibition at the National Maritime Museum. Susan Doran (ed.). London: Chatto and Windus, 2003. ISBN 0701174765.
+
Doran, Susan. "The Queen's Suitors and the Problem of the Succession." Elizabeth: The Exhibition at the National Maritime Museum. Susan Doran (ed.). London: Chatto and Windus, 2003. ISBN 0701174765.
+
Edwards, Philip. The Making of the Modern English State: 1460–1660. Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004. ISBN 031223614X.
+
Elizabeth I: The Collected Works Leah S. Marcus, Mary Beth Rose & Janel Mueller (eds.). Chicago: Chicago University Press, 2002. ISBN 0226504654.
+
Elton, G.R. England under the Tudors. London: Routledge, 1991. ISBN 041506533X.
+
Flynn, Sian; and David Spence. "Elizabeth's Adventurers". Elizabeth: The Exhibition at the National Maritime Museum. Susan Doran (ed.). London: Chatto and Windus, 2003. ISBN 0701174765.
+
Frieda, Leonie. Catherine de Medici. London: Phoenix, 2005. ISBN 0173820390.
+
Gaunt, William. Court Painting in England from Tudor to Victorian Times. London: Constable, 1980. ISBN 0094618704.
+
Graves, Michael A. R. Elizabethan Parliaments: 1559–1601. London and New York: Longman, 1987. ISBN 0582355168.
+
Guy, John. My Heart is My Own: The Life of Mary Queen of Scots. London and New York: Fourth Estate, 2004. ISBN 184115752X.
+
Haigh, Christopher. Elizabeth I. Harlow (UK): Longman Pearson, (1988) 1998 edition. ISBN 0582437547.
+
Hasler. P. W (ed). History of Parliament. House of Commons 1558–1603 (3 vols). London: Published for the History of Parliament Trust by H.M.S.O., 1981. ISBN 0118875019.
+
Hogge, Alice. God's Secret Agents: Queen Elizabeth's Forbidden Priests and the Hatching of the Gunpowder Plot. London: HarperCollins, 2005. ISBN 0007156375.
+
Loades, David. Elizabeth I: The Golden Reign of Gloriana. London: The National Archives, 2003. ISBN 1903365430.
+
Neale, J.E. Queen Elizabeth I: A Biography. London: Jonathan Cape, (1934) 1954 reprint. OCLC 220518.
+
Ridley, Jasper. Elizabeth I: The Shrewdness of Virtue. New York : Fromm International, 1989. ISBN 088064110X.
+
Rowse, A. L. The England of Elizabeth. London: Macmillan, 1950. OCLC 181656553.
+
Russell, Conrad. The Crisis of Parliaments: English History, 1509–1660. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1971. ISBN 0199130345.
+
Somerset, Anne. Elizabeth I. London: Phoenix, (1991) 1997 edition. ISBN 0385721579.
+
Starkey, David. "Elizabeth: Woman, Monarch, Mission." Elizabeth: The Exhibition at the National Maritime Museum. Susan Doran (ed.). London: Chatto and Windus, 2003. ISBN 0701174765.
+
Strong, Roy. Gloriana: The Portraits of Queen Elizabeth I. London: Pimlico, (1987) 2003. ISBN 071260944X.
+
Waller, Maureen, "Sovereign Ladies: Sex, Sacrifice, and Power. The Six Reigning Queens of England." St. Martin's Press, New York, 2006. ISBN 0-312-33801-5
+
Weir, Alison. Elizabeth the Queen. London: Pimlico, (1998) 1999 edition. ISBN 0712673121.
+
Williams, Neville. The Life and Times of Elizabeth I. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1972. ISBN 0297831682.
+
Willson, David Harris. King James VI & I. London: Jonathan Cape, (1956) 1963. ISBN 0224605720.
+
Wilson, Charles H. Queen Elizabeth and the Revolt of the Netherlands. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1970. ISBN 0520017447.
+
 
+
[edit] External links
+
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
+
Elizabeth I of EnglandWikisource has original works written by or about:
+
Elizabeth IWikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
+
Elizabeth I of EnglandWilliam Camden. Annales Rerum Gestarum Angliae et Hiberniae Regnante Elizabetha. (1615 and 1625.) Hypertext edition, with English translation. Dana F. Sutton (ed.), 2000. Retrieved 7 December 2007.
+
Tudor and Elizabeth Portraits. Tudor and Elizabethan portraits and other works of art, provided for research and education. Retrieved 15 December 2007.
+
Elizabeth I of England
+
House of Tudor
+
Born: 7 September 1533 Died: 24 March 1603
+
Regnal titles
+
Preceded by
+
Mary I Queen of England
+
Queen of Ireland
+
17 November 1558 – 24 March 1603 Succeeded by
+
James I
+
English royalty
+
Preceded by
+
Lady Mary Tudor Heir to the English Throne
+
as heiress presumptive
+
March 1534 – 1536 Succeeded by
+
Edward, Prince of Wales
+
Preceded by
+
Lady Catherine Grey Heir to the English and Irish Thrones
+
as heiress presumptive
+
19 July 1553 – 17 November 1558 Vacant
+
Never designated an heir¹
+
Title next held by
+
Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales
+
Notes and references:
+
*1. Her potential heirs at the time of succession were Lady Frances Brandon by the Third Succession Act and Mary I of Scotland by cognatic primogeniture 
+
  
Persondata
+
==Bibliography==
NAME Elizabeth I
+
*Black, J. B. The Reign of Elizabeth: 1558–1603. Oxford: Clarendon, (1936) 1945. OCLC 5077207
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Elizabeth I of England; The Virgin Queen; Gloriana; Good Queen Bess
+
*Brimacombe, Peter. All the Queen's Men: The World of Elizabeth I. New York: St Martin's Press, 2000. ISBN 0312232519.
SHORT DESCRIPTION Queen of England; Queen of Ireland
+
*Camden, William. History of the Most Renowned and Victorious Princess Elizabeth. Wallace T. MacCaffrey (ed). Chicago: University of Chicago Press, selected chapters, 1970 edition. OCLC 59210072.
DATE OF BIRTH 7 September 1533(1533-09-07)  
+
*Clapham, John. Elizabeth of England. E. P. Read and Conyers Read (eds). Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1951. OCLC 1350639.
PLACE OF BIRTH Greenwich, England
+
*Collinson, Patrick. "The Mongrel Religion of Elizabethan England." Elizabeth: The Exhibition at the National Maritime Museum. Susan Doran (ed.). London: Chatto and Windus, 2003. ISBN 0701174765.
DATE OF DEATH 24 March 1603
+
*Croft, Pauline. King James. Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. ISBN 0333613953.
PLACE OF DEATH Richmond, Surrey
+
*Davenport, Cyril. English Embroidered Bookbindings. Alfred Pollard (ed.). London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner and Co., 1899. OCLC 705685.
 +
*Dobson, Michael; and Nicola Watson. "Elizabeth's Legacy". Elizabeth: The Exhibition at the National Maritime Museum. Susan Doran (ed.). London: Chatto and Windus, 2003. ISBN 0701174765.
 +
*Doran, Susan. "The Queen's Suitors and the Problem of the Succession." Elizabeth: The Exhibition at the National Maritime Museum. Susan Doran (ed.). London: Chatto and Windus, 2003. ISBN 0701174765.
 +
*Edwards, Philip. The Making of the Modern English State: 1460–1660. Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004. ISBN 031223614X.
 +
*Elizabeth I: The Collected Works Leah S. Marcus, Mary Beth Rose & Janel Mueller (eds.). Chicago: Chicago University Press, 2002. ISBN 0226504654.
 +
*Elton, G.R. England under the Tudors. London: Routledge, 1991. ISBN 041506533X.
 +
*Flynn, Sian; and David Spence. "Elizabeth's Adventurers". Elizabeth: The Exhibition at the National Maritime Museum. Susan Doran (ed.). London: Chatto and Windus, 2003. ISBN 0701174765.
 +
*Frieda, Leonie. Catherine de Medici. London: Phoenix, 2005. ISBN 0173820390.
 +
*Gaunt, William. Court Painting in England from Tudor to Victorian Times. London: Constable, 1980. ISBN 0094618704.
 +
*Graves, Michael A. R. Elizabethan Parliaments: 1559–1601. London and New York: Longman, 1987. ISBN 0582355168.
 +
*Guy, John. My Heart is My Own: The Life of Mary Queen of Scots. London and New York: Fourth Estate, 2004. ISBN 184115752X.
 +
*Haigh, Christopher. Elizabeth I. Harlow (UK): Longman Pearson, (1988) 1998 edition. ISBN 0582437547.
 +
*Hasler. P. W (ed). History of Parliament. House of Commons 1558–1603 (3 vols). London: Published for the History of Parliament Trust by H.M.S.O., 1981. ISBN 0118875019.
 +
*Hogge, Alice. God's Secret Agents: Queen Elizabeth's Forbidden Priests and the Hatching of the Gunpowder Plot. London: HarperCollins, 2005. ISBN 0007156375.
 +
*Loades, David. Elizabeth I: The Golden Reign of Gloriana. London: The National Archives, 2003. ISBN 1903365430.
 +
*Neale, J.E. Queen Elizabeth I: A Biography. London: Jonathan Cape, (1934) 1954 reprint. OCLC 220518.
 +
*Ridley, Jasper. Elizabeth I: The Shrewdness of Virtue. New York : Fromm International, 1989. ISBN 088064110X.
 +
*Rowse, A. L. The England of Elizabeth. London: Macmillan, 1950. OCLC 181656553.
 +
*Russell, Conrad. The Crisis of Parliaments: English History, 1509–1660. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1971. ISBN 0199130345.
 +
*Somerset, Anne. Elizabeth I. London: Phoenix, (1991) 1997 edition. ISBN 0385721579.
 +
*Starkey, David. "Elizabeth: Woman, Monarch, Mission." Elizabeth: The Exhibition at the National Maritime Museum. Susan Doran (ed.). London: Chatto and Windus, 2003. ISBN 0701174765.
 +
*Strong, Roy. Gloriana: The Portraits of Queen Elizabeth I. London: Pimlico, (1987) 2003. ISBN 071260944X.
 +
*Waller, Maureen, "Sovereign Ladies: Sex, Sacrifice, and Power. The Six Reigning Queens of England." St. Martin's Press, New York, 2006. ISBN 0-312-33801-5
 +
*Weir, Alison. Elizabeth the Queen. London: Pimlico, (1998) 1999 edition. ISBN 0712673121.
 +
*Williams, Neville. The Life and Times of Elizabeth I. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1972. ISBN 0297831682.
 +
*Willson, David Harris. King James VI & I. London: Jonathan Cape, (1956) 1963. ISBN 0224605720.
 +
*Wilson, Charles H. Queen Elizabeth and the Revolt of the Netherlands. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1970. ISBN 0520017447. 
  
 
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elizabeth_I_of_England"
 
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elizabeth_I_of_England"

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