He was Great Khan from 1206 to 1227 when he died. He had four sons between whom his empire was divided, with the third son Ogodei elected as the next Great Khan. Children by his principal wife Borte:
- Juji Khan, from whom the Golden Horde, also Bulgaria, Kazan and Crimea
- Chaghadai, from whom the Transoxanian Line
- Ogodei, his successor as Great Khan
- Tului, from whom the Yuan of China and the Ilkhans of Persia
There is some question over whether his eldest son Juji was really his son. Pavel posts to Gen-Medieval on Mar 7, 2007 [some minor grammer corrected] that "...the "Secret History of Mongols" is our only source on this issue. According to it, Börte was abducted by Merkits (one of Mongol tribes) and was rescued after several months. She gave birth to Yuchi shortly afterwards and it is therefore entirely possible that she was impregnated by some Merkit (probably their leader Chilger the Strong). When Ghenghis decided that Yuchi would be his successor, his other sons were enraged and one of them... uttered something like "How could we allow ourselves to be ruled by a Merkit bastard?" Ghenghis in his reply denounced these opinions stating explicitly that he counts Yuchi as his eldest son."
- Genghis Khan on wikipedia
- The Encyclopedia of World History, Peter N Stearns (ed.), 6th edition. Houghton, Mifflin 2001 ISBN 0395652375 (1243 pages) "The Successors of Chinggis Khan (1227-1336)", page 153
- Derek Whaley reports that Genghis Khan's "...great-grandson Abaqa (son of Hulegu son of Toloi Tuluj) married Maria Palaiologina, the daughter of Emperor Michael VIII of Byzantium. They had a daughter, Maria, who married Isaac Asen, the son of Emperor John III."
- Pavel on Gen-Medieval@rootsweb.com Mar 7, 2007 "Re: European link to the Mongols"