Franco-Mongol alliance

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These contacts were part of a broader web of [[Mongol alliances in the Middle-East]] which occurred throughout the second half of the 13th century and the beginning of the 14th century, and involved widely spread polities. These multiples alliances were organized between, on the one hand a North-South axis consisting of the Mongol [[Golden Horde]], the Egyptian [[Mamluks]] and the [[Genoese]], and on the other, a East-West axis consisting of the Mongol [[Il-Khanids]], the [[Armenians]], the [[Franks]]. The [[Byzantine Empire]] would ally with the two parties alternatively.
 
These contacts were part of a broader web of [[Mongol alliances in the Middle-East]] which occurred throughout the second half of the 13th century and the beginning of the 14th century, and involved widely spread polities. These multiples alliances were organized between, on the one hand a North-South axis consisting of the Mongol [[Golden Horde]], the Egyptian [[Mamluks]] and the [[Genoese]], and on the other, a East-West axis consisting of the Mongol [[Il-Khanids]], the [[Armenians]], the [[Franks]]. The [[Byzantine Empire]] would ally with the two parties alternatively.
  
>==Christianity among the Mongols==
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==Christianity among the Mongols==
 
[[Image:Stone 1-1-.jpg|thumb|The [[Nestorian Stele]] in China, erected in 781.]]
 
[[Image:Stone 1-1-.jpg|thumb|The [[Nestorian Stele]] in China, erected in 781.]]
 
{{main|Christianity among the Mongols}}
 
{{main|Christianity among the Mongols}}
Overall, Mongols were highly tolerant of most religions, and typically sponsored several at the same time, though [[shamanism]], [[Buddhism]], and [[Christianity]] were the most popular in the early 1200s.  When Temüjin, a shamanist who would later be titled [[Genghis Khan]], declared the Baljuna Covenant with 17 of his companions, several of them were Christian.<ref>Weatherford, p. 58</ref> Many Mongol tribes, such as the [[Kerait]],<ref>"The Keraits, who were a semi-nomadic people of Turkish origin, inhabited the country round the Orkhon river in modern Outer Mongolia. Early in the eleventh century their ruler had been converted to Nestorian Christianity, together with most of his subjects; and the conversion brought the Keraits into touch with the Uighur Turks, amongst whom were many Nestorians", Runciman, p.238</ref> the [[Naiman]], the [[Merkit]], and to a large extent the [[Kara-Khitan Khanate|Kara Khitan]], were Nestorian Christian.<ref>"In 1196, Gengis Khan succeeded in the unification under his authority of all the Mongol tribes, some of which had been converted to Nestorian Christianity" "Les Croisades, origines et conséquences", p.74</ref> All the sons of Genghis Khan had taken Christian wives, from the tribe of the Kerait. While the men were away at battle, the empire was effectively run by the Christian women.<ref>Weatherford, pp. 160-161</ref><ref>"In 1196, Gengis Khan succeeded in the unification under his authority of all the Mongol tribes, some of which had been converted to Nestorian Christianity" "Les Croisades, origines et conséquences", p.74</ref> Genghis Khan's grandson [[Sartaq]] was Christian;<ref>"Early in 1253 a report reached Acre that one of the Mongol princes, Sartaq, son of Batu, had been converted to Christianity", Runciman, p.280</ref> as was the general [[Kitbuqa]],<ref name=runciman-308>"Kitbuqa, as a Christian himself, made no secret of his sympathies", Runciman, p.308</ref> commander of the Mongol forces of the [[Levant]]. Under [[Mongka]], another of Genghis Khan's grandsons, the main religious influence was that of the Nestorians.<ref>Under Mongka "The chief religious influence was that of the Nestorian Christians, to whom Mongka showed especial favour in memory of his mother Sorghaqtani, who had always remained loyal to her faith" Runciman, p. 296</ref> Marital alliances with Western powers also occurred, as in the 1265 marriage of [[Maria Despina Palaiologina]], the Christian daughter of Emperor [[Michael VIII Palaeologus]], with Hulagu's son, the Mongol khan [[Abaqa Khan|Abaqa]], who himself was a [[Buddhist]].
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Overall, Mongols were highly tolerant of most religions, and typically sponsored several at the same time, though [[shamanism]], [[Buddhism]], and [[Christianity]] were the most popular in the early 1200s.  When Temüjin, a shamanist who would later be titled [[Genghis Khan]], declared the Baljuna Covenant with 17 of his companions, several of them were Christian.<ref>Weatherford, p. 58</ref> Many Mongol tribes, such as the [[Kerait]],<ref>"The Keraits, who were a semi-nomadic people of Turkish origin, inhabited the country round the Orkhon river in modern Outer Mongolia. Early in the eleventh century their ruler had been converted to Nestorian Christianity, together with most of his subjects; and the conversion brought the Keraits into touch with the Uighur Turks, amongst whom were many Nestorians", Runciman, p.238</ref> the [[Naiman]], the [[Merkit]], and to a large extent the [[Kara-Khitan Khanate|Kara Khitan]], were Nestorian Christian.<ref>"In 1196, Gengis Khan succeeded in the unification under his authority of all the Mongol tribes, some of which had been converted to Nestorian Christianity" "Les Croisades, origines et conséquences", p.74</ref> All the sons of Genghis Khan had taken Christian wives, from the tribe of the Kerait. While the men were away at battle, the empire was effectively run by the Christian women.<ref>Weatherford, pp. 160-161</ref><ref>"In 1196, Gengis Khan succeeded in the unification under his authority of all the Mongol tribes, some of which had been converted to Nestorian Christianity" "Les Croisades, origines et conséquences", p.74</ref> Genghis Khan's grandson [[Sartaq]] was Christian;<ref>"Early in 1253 a report reached Acre that one of the Mongol princes, Sartaq, son of Batu, had been converted to Christianity", Runciman, p.280</ref> as was the general [[Kitbuqa]],<ref name=runciman-308>"Kitbuqa, as a Christian himself, made no secret of his sympathies", Runciman, p.308</ref> commander of the Mongol forces of the [[Levant]]. Under [[Mongka]], another of Genghis Khan's grandsons, the main religious influence was that of the Nestorians.<ref>Under Mongka "The chief religious influence was that of the Nestorian Christians, to whom Mongka showed especial favour in memory of his mother Sorghaqtani, who had always remained loyal to her faith" Runciman, p. 296</ref> Marital alliances with Western powers also occurred, as in the 1265 marriage of [[Maria Despina Palaiologina]], the Christian daughter of Emperor [[Michael VIII Palaeologus]], with Hulagu's son, the Mongol khan [[Abaqa Khan|Abaqa]], who himself was a [[Buddhist]].
 
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==Early contacts (1209-1244)==
 
==Early contacts (1209-1244)==

Latest revision as of 21:01, 19 November 2010

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